(Dolbin-MacNab, 2006,.1) Grandparents usually are not expecting to have to parent again, this is the time most are enjoying their new found Continue Reading ParentingRead more
Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, Sawin CT, Col NF, Cobin RH, Franklyn JA, Hershman JM, Burman KD, Denke MA, Gorman C, Cooper RS, Weissman.Read more
Research paper on marketing channel
integrating qualitative how to write an essay rap and quantitative methods in health education research. Social marketers working to promote health have learned that rigorous quantitative research surveys do not necessarily provide all of the data needed to develop effective communications. The purpose of this paper is to look at how these two different research approaches can be integrated to inform the development of an effective social marketing program. These techniques cover the ways research participants are selected randomly from the study population in an unbiased manner, the standardized questionnaire or intervention they receive and the statistical methods used to test predetermined hypotheses regarding the relationships between specific variables. In the qualitative paradigm, the researcher becomes the instrument of data collection, and results may vary greatly depending upon who conducts the research. While each program is unique, the model proposed here can be adapted based on available resources. Hypotheses are generated during data collection and analysis, and measurement tends to be subjective.
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Other quantitative tracking mechanisms, such as consumer surveys, identify whether the program's message is reaching the target audience and is getting its attention and motivating action. In an ongoing multi-year project, this may be a repetition of the population survey conducted at the beginning; for a shorter-term project, a survey may target a very specific audience segment. This combination of approaches is necessary because of the wide range of data needed to develop effective communications. This paradigm breaks down when the phenomenon under study is difficult to measure or quantify. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. As social marketers demonstrate that such research is necessary to fully understand and address many health-related issues, the research norms and scientific dogma regarding appropriate methods may shift to a new, more integrative paradigm. However, the reductionistic model of disease causation cannot adequately describe the complex mechanisms that influence health behavior. However, the potential for problems exists when attempting to combine such divergent research paradigms; one may end up not doing either type of research well. This integrative approach therefore requires a research team with expertise in both types of methods. Many of the tools used to develop social marketing programs-focus groups, consumer marketing databases, intercept surveys-have their origins in the field of commercial market research, and are based on "what works" for gathering various types of needed data.
Even those who are committed to using a mix of research methods may encounter institutional resistance to deviating from the quantitative paradigm, particularly when the proposed research will occur in a governmental or academic setting. Another obstacle, which will likely change as social marketing gains in usage, is that combining multiple methods is still not widely accepted as a viable research strategy-at least in mainstream public health circles. Social marketing relies upon consumer-focused research to learn as much about the target audience as possible by looking at their lives from many different angles-both quantitatively as part of a larger group and qualitatively to investigate individual attitudes, reactions, behaviors and preferences. Both types of research are instructive in identifying the program outcomes. Information learned from the initial focus groups can then be used to inform questionnaire construction for a population survey to collect hard numbers for baseline data. Steckler A, McLeroy KR, Goodman RM, Bird ST, McCormick L (1992). Related decreases in morbidity and mortality or other major indices will be more difficult to claim without also conducting a matched community intervention study, with the only difference between the communities being the presence of the social marketing program. Social Marketing Research, the traditional health promotion professional conducts research at the beginning of a project to develop an intervention, and again at the end to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention.